Once your neurologist suspects or confirms your diagnosis as Krabbe disease, it’s important to get connected to the right experts. Due to the complexity of this rare disease, it’s likely your care team has never encountered another patient with this condition. It’s imperative that your family member receives the most innovative options for treatment and management of the disease.
The following have been identified as leaders in the care and clinical management of Krabbe disease. As a rare disease organization, we are grateful for each of the below experts whom are well known around the world for their program and can meet the extensive medical needs of patients with Krabbe disease.
Allison Bradbury, Ph.D.
Allison Bradbury is a NRSA Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the lab of Charles H. Vitae, DVM, Ph.D., ACVIM (Neurology) at the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. She received her Ph.D. in Biomedical Sciences from Auburn University in 2014, focusing her doctoral research on adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy in a feline model of GM2 Gangliosidosis, also known as Sandhoff disease. As a NRSA Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the lab of Dr. Vite, Allison is currently evaluating disease mechanisms and developing gene therapy approaches in the canine model of Krabbe disease. She has conducted a comprehensive natural history study in the canine model of Krabbe disease and demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in this model for the first time by utilizing AAV gene therapy to target both central and peripheral nervous systems.
Ernesto Bongarzone, Ph.D.
Dr. Ernesto R. Bongarzone holds a doctorate in neuroscience from the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Currently, Dr. Bongarzone is a tenured full professor in neuroscience at the College of Medicine at the University of Illinois, Chicago (UIC). After finishing a postdoctoral training on oligodendrocyte biology at the Developmental Biology Group at the Neuropsychiatric Institute at UCLA, Dr Bongarzone took on a leadership position at the Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy in Milan, Italy. During this stage, his laboratory focused on gene and cell therapy for inherited leukodystrophies, particularly on Krabbe’s disease. In 2006 Dr Bongarzone was recruited as a faculty in the Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology at UIC and initiated a larger program on gene therapy for Krabbe’s disease, with a special interest on mechanisms of neuropathology. In parallel, his laboratory also studies mechanisms of myelin remodelling in the adult brain, pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and the role of lysosomal dysfunction in adult onset neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia and chronic traumatic encephalopathy.
Steven Gray, Ph.D.
Dr. Steven Gray earned his Ph.D. in molecular biology from Vanderbilt University in 2006, after receiving a B.S. degree with honors from Auburn University. He performed a postdoctoral fellowship focusing on gene therapy in the laboratory of Jude Samulski at UNC Chapel Hill. He is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. Dr. Gray is the director of the UTSW Viral Vector Facility and maintains affiliations with the Department of Molecular Biology, the Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, the Eugene McDermott Center for Human Growth and Development, and the Hamon Center for Regenerative Science and Medicine at UT Southwestern. He also maintains an adjunct faculty appointment in the Department of Pediatrics and the Carolina Institute for Developmental Disorders at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Dr. Gray’s core expertise is in AAV gene therapy vector engineering, followed by optimizing approaches to deliver a gene to the nervous system. His major focus is in AAV vector development to develop vectors tailored to serve specific clinical and research applications involving the nervous system. These include the development of novel AAV capsids amenable to widespread CNS gene transfer. As AAV-based platform gene transfer technologies have been developed to achieve global, efficient, and in some cases cell-type specific CNS gene delivery, his research focus has also included preclinical studies to apply these reagents toward the development of treatments for neurological diseases. Currently these include preclinical studies for Rett Syndrome, Giant Axonal Neuropathy (GAN), Tay-Sachs, Sandhoff, Krabbe, AGU, Charcot-Marie Tooth, and Batten Diseases, and have expanded into human clinical studies to test a gene therapy approach for GAN.
Dr. Gray has published over 50 peer-reviewed papers in journals such as New England Journal of Medicine, Molecular Therapy, Nature Biotechnology, Gene Therapy, and The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. He also has 3 pending patents. His research is funded by the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke, as well as numerous large and small research foundations. Dr. Gray was recently recognized with the 2016 Healthcare Hero award by the Triangle Business Journal, and his work on GAN was featured in a story by the CBS National Evening News in 2015.
Julia Kofler, MD
Dr. Julia Kofler holds a medical degree from the University of Vienna, Austria. After completing a residency in Anatomic Pathology and a fellowship in Neuropathology, she joined the pathology faculty at the University of Pittsburgh in 2010. In 2012, Dr Kofler became the director of the Neuropathology core of the Alzheimer’s disease research center, where she oversees the banking, diagnostic evaluation, and annotation of donated brains and spinal cords and manages the distribution of neurodegenerative brain tissue samples to interested local, national and international researchers. The brain bank at the University of Pittsburgh is in existence for over 30 years now and has collected >1600 cases, including Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease and other movement disorders, and traumatic brain injury. While the original focus of the brain bank was on adult neurodegenerative disease, in 2015 the brain bank was expanded to include pediatric leukodystrophies and storage disorders, with a special focus on Krabbe disease. In collaboration with Dr Maria Escolar at Children’s hospital of Pittsburgh, nine cases of Krabbe disease have been donated to the brain bank in a two-year period, which now represents the largest collection of Krabbe disease tissue samples in the country. Examination of these invaluable specimens will increase our understanding of the pathologic disease spectrum, possible associations with genetic mutations, underlying pathobiologic processes and impact of new treatment modalities.
Mark Sands, Ph.D.
Mark S. Sands, Ph.D. is a Professor in the Departments of Internal Medicine and Genetics at Washington University School of Medicine. Dr. Sands received a B.S in Nuclear Medicine from Rochester Institute of Technology in 1980. He then worked as a Research Technician in the Radiology Department at the University of Rochester School of Medicine from 1980 to 1984. Dr. Sands ventured on to receive a Ph.D. in Molecular Pharmacology from the State University of New York at Stony Brook in 1990 and became a postdoctoral research fellow at The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME), where his interest in Lysosomal Storage Diseases sprouted. He then performed a short post-doctoral fellowship at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine before joining the faculty at Washington University School of Medicine in 1994. Since then Dr. Sands has run an independent research laboratory with the goals of better understanding the underlying pathogenesis and developing effective therapies for inherited childhood diseases; specifically, lysosomal storage diseases. Over the past ~30 years Dr. Sands’ research has focused on stem cell-mediated therapy, gene therapy, small molecule drugs and more recently on rational combinations of these approaches. The primary diseases that Dr. Sands studies are Krabbe disease, Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII and Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis.
David A Wenger, PhD
Dr. David Wenger began his academic career in 1971 in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Colorado-School of Medicine after completing a post-doctoral fellowship at the Weizmann Institute in Israel with Dr. John S. O’Brien; the doctor who identified the gene causing Tay-Sachs disease. The following year, Dr. Wenger began studies on the purification of galactocerebrosidase (GALC), the enzyme missing in affected patients with Krabbe disease. Then in 1973, he received his first patient samples for diagnostic studies, instituting the Lysosomal Diseases Testing Laboratory. To date, Dr. David Wenger laboratory has diagnosed over 700 patients with Krabbe disease; His laboratory is located at the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia.
Dr. David Wenger’s dedication to Krabbe disease continued to strengthen as he, with others, cloned the saposin gene in 1986-a protein responsible for lysosomal degradation of many sphingolipids. Seven years later, with the help of a post-doctoral fellow Chen Yue Qun, he purified the GALC enzyme and cloned the gene. This discovery earmarked their ability to identify mutations such as the large deletion (30kb), the most common pathogenic variant in the European Krabbe population, along with 60 additional mutations.
Currently, Dr. David Wenger is working with a viral vector called AAVrh10-containing GALC cDNA with blood stem cell therapy to treat the mouse model of Krabbe disease. Intravenous injection of this vector shows great promise in delaying the onset of clinical findings, improving myelination, and delivering GALC activity to all nervous tissues, including the peripheral nervous system. Since blood stem cell transplantation in pre-symptomatic and mildly affected later-onset human patients is the current “standard of care,” the addition of a single intravenous injection of this viral vector to the treatment protocol appears to provide a large boost to the effectiveness of treatment. The viral vector will rapidly provide ample GALC activity to all critical tissues and the blood stem cells will improve the inflammatory component found in this disease. Affected mice undergoing this treatment are doing very well, some living two years versus 40 days when untreated. More studies to evaluate the timing of treatment and dosing of viral vector are underway. Studies are in progress in the dog model and rats to evaluate safety and effectiveness, with hopes of leading to a human trial soon.